A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

Как обратиться в поддержку Почты России

И введите свой номер телефона, Email и пароль. На телефон снова придёт код подтверждения, но на этот раз вы уже знаете, почему так произошло. Код нужно ввести в форму для подтверждения телефона.

Когда аккаунт будет создан, откройте страницу поддержки или снова перейдите по указанной выше ссылке. Необходимо заполнить бланк, оставив адрес почты, чтобы поддержка смогла ответить на вопрос. Есть также дополнительные средства связи с представителями почтовой службы.

Используйте группы в ВКонтакте и Одноклассниках, чтобы написать модератору свой вопрос. Сообщение из мобильного телефона от RussianPost можно вовсе проигнорировать, если вы не отправляли посылок и не регистрировались на онлайн-портале. Для собственной безопасности перенесите СМС в корзину, чтобы другие не смогли получить к нему доступ.

Educational support for expat students in Russia

Unfortunately, the Russian educational curriculum does not make any allowances for children who do not speak Russian, and the majority of public schools don’t offer additional language classes or support for non-Russian-speaking pupils. That said, many private schools provide additional Russian lessons at an extra cost.

Glossary of Terms

RussianPronunciationEnglish

законzakonlaw
задержанныйzaderzhannydetainee
обвиняемыйobvinyaemycharged
адвокат/ защитникadvakatDefence lawyer
прокурорprakurorprosecutor
осужденныйosuzhdennyconvicted
залогzalogbail
содержание под стражейsaderzhanie pod strazheicustody
подписка о невыездеpadpiska o nevyezdeundertaking not to leave
судsudcourt
судьяsud’yajudge
присяжныеprisyazhnyejury
свидетельsvidetel’witness
переводчикperevodchiktranslator
штрафshtraffine
обвиняемыйobvinyaemydefendant
наказаниеnakazaniepenalty
пострадавшийpastradavshyaffected person
следственный изолятор – СИЗОSIZOremand prison
колонияkaloniyacolony
тюрьмаtyur’maprison
условно-досрочное освобождение – УДОUDOrelease on parole
согласиеsaglasieconsent
помилованиеpomilovanieclemency
апелляцияapellyatsiyaAppeal
высылкаvysylkaexpulsion
депортацияdepartatsiyadeportation

2 Key phrases – English into Russian

RussianPronunciationEnglish

фасольfasolbeans
свеклаsvyoklabeetroot
капустаkapoostacabbage
морковьmarkof’carrot
цветная капустаtsvetnaya kapoostacauliflower
огурцыagoortsycucumbers
баклажанbaklazhanaubergine
чеснокchesnokgarlic
красный перецkrasny peretsred pepper
салатsalatlettuce

Fruit – Фрукты

RussianPronunciationEnglish

яблокоyablokoapple
бананbananbanana
виноградveenagradgrapes
абрикосabrikosapricot
лимонleemonlemon
дыняdynyamelon
апельсинapelseenorange
персикperseekpeach
грушаgrooshapear
ананасananaspineapple
сливаsleevaplum
изюмeesyumraisins
клубникаkloobneekastrawberry
арбузarboozwatermelon

Meat – мясо

RussianPronunciationEnglish

корейкаkareykabacon
говядинаgavyadinabeef
курицаkooritsachicken
уткаootkaduck
гусьgoosgoose
ветчинаvyetcheenaham
печеньpechenliver
свининаsveeneenapork
сосискиsaseeskysausage/hot dog
языкyaziktongue
индейкаindeykaturkey
телятинаtelyatinaveal

Fish – Рыба

RussianPronunciationEnglish

карпkarpcarp
икраeekracaviar
селедкаselyodkaherring
лососьlasossalmon

Miscellaneous Food – Прочие продукты

RussianPronunciationEnglish

хлебkhlyebbread
белыйbyelywhite (wheat)
черныйchornyrye
свежийsvezhyfresh
булочкаboolochkabun, roll
торт, пирог, кексtort, peerog, kekscake
вареньеvarenyejam
майонезmayonezmayonnaise
кетчупketchupketchup
макароныmakaronynoodles any type
пиццаpizzapizza
сольsol’salt
перецperetspepper
мукаmukaflour
сахарsakharsugar

Beverages – Напитки

RussianPronunciationEnglish

водаvadawater
с газомs gazomfizzy
без газаbez gazastill
чайchaytea
кофеkofyecoffee
сокsokjuice
пивоpeevabeer
виноveenowine
водкаvodkavodka

Dairy products – молочные продукты

RussianPronunciationEnglish

молокоmalakomilk
сгущенное молокоsgooshyonoye malakocondensed milk
творогtvarogsoft cheese
йогуртyoghurtyoghurt
сметанаsmetanasour cream
сырsyrcheese
маслоmaslabutter
растительное маслоrastitelnoye maslavegetable oil
маргаринmargarinmargarine

3 Annex

FCDO guidance: Support for British nationals abroad

FCDO guidance: Arrested abroad: advice for British nationals

List of English-speaking lawyers

List of Private Translators/Interpreters

Prisoners Abroad Forms

Changing schools in Russia

Parents must first file an official notice with their child’s current school stating their intention to withdraw their child. The school will then provide them with all documentation relating to their child, which the parents must then submit to the new school, together with an application for their child to study there.

Preschool education in Russia

Russian children often attend kindergarten (детский сад, detsky sad) from as early as 18 months old, up until they begin primary school at six or seven years old. Russia is home to almost 48,000 kindergartens, which include both local Russian schools and international alternatives. As a result, there are plenty of preschool options for expat parents.

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

Regional and local governments run the vast majority of kindergartens in Russia and by law they can only charge parents up to 20% of the total cost of childcare. Despite the abundance of kindergartens throughout the country, spaces remain limited. For instance, there were 15,000 more preschool-aged children than there were preschool places in Moscow alone. For this reason, many parents often add their child to a waiting list immediately after they have given birth.

There are also numerous privately-owned preschools in Russia, particularly in and around the major cities. Some international schools for older children also offer facilities for preschool-aged children, with instruction in the school’s primary language. However, fees can be very high.

The Russian judicial system

Unlike the UK which is a common law country, the Russian Federation has a civil law system. It has many differences from the UK system. Russian law includes both codified laws (for example, the Civil Code and the Criminal Code) and other laws which must be consistent with the relevant codes.

International law is recognised as part of the Russian legal system but Russian domestic legislation may override provisions of international law. The Russian court structure consists of federal and regional courts, both headed by the Supreme Court. Federal courts include commercial courts that resolve economic disputes and courts of general jurisdiction handling all other cases. Regional courts include magistrates’ courts resolving minor matters, and the constitutional (statutory) courts of the Russian regions, which handle cases concerning the regions’ constitutions (statutes). The Constitutional Court deals with disputes concerning the constitutionality of certain legal acts and is a separate judicial body in the Russian court system. Judgments by the Constitutional Court that contain interpretations of the law bind all courts, state agencies, legal entities and individuals.

Courts of general jurisdiction are:

  • magistrates’ courts and district courts
  • courts of the regions (appellate)
  • courts of the regions (cassation)
  • the Supreme Court

The Supreme Court is the court of cassation (second-tier) and the supervisory court handling cases on challenge of judicial acts of the Supreme Court and holding a final decision for both courts of general jurisdiction and commercial courts.

Supreme Court judgments are binding on the lower courts to ensure uniformity of legal practice. Quasi-legal authorities are not commonly used in the Russian Federation. An individual can apply to the ombudsman in the case of an infringement of their rights.

An independent judiciary is one of the key constitutional principles of the Russian legal system. Judges are supposed to be bound only by the Constitution and federal laws. However, Russian and international media and human rights groups make frequent reports of corruptions and judiciary acting on the orders from the government or law enforcement agencies, especially in politically motivated cases.

The claimant and the defendant in civil proceedings (and the prosecutor and the accused in criminal proceedings) put evidence before the court. The court is not obliged to gather evidence. However, for the purposes of giving a reasonable and justified judgment, the court can participate and assist the parties in gathering evidence that cannot be obtained by the parties themselves.

In both civil and criminal proceedings, the court is responsible for examining evidence before the trial. The examination of the evidence is conducted either in the court room in the presence of the parties or in the field, if the evidence being examined cannot be delivered to the court room.

There is a possibility for the accused to enter a pre-trial plea to disclose information or compensate losses/damages to the affected person in hope for a more lenient punishment.

The results of evidence examination are fixed in the record of the proceedings. To ensure the impartial examination of the evidence, the court interrogates witnesses, involves experts in the proceedings and requires the parties to provide additional evidence. Having examined the evidence, the court has discretion to either proceed with the trial or to request the provision of the additional evidence.

Judicial hearings in all criminal cases are open to the public except where:

  • it concerns state or other secrets protected by federal law
  • the accused are under 16 years old
  • it concerns private information regarding the participants
  • It concerns the security of the participants or their relatives

The key parties to civil proceedings are the claimant and the defendant. In criminal proceedings, the key parties are the prosecutor and the accused.

Persons assisting in the delivery of justice include witnesses, experts, interpreters, etc. Juries are used in criminal cases, except for those of terrorism and related crimes, mass unrests, state treason, espionage and armed rebellion. The jury is comprised of twelve people. Juries are not used in civil cases. The evidence gathered by the parties must meet the criteria of relevance, admissibility and reliability. If the evidence was received by breaching the law, the court must deem it inadmissible. If the evidence has a prejudicial effect, the court is not entitled to re-examine and re-assess it. The presence of a jury has no impact on these rules.

The Russian Constitution stipulates that every person accused of committing a crime is considered innocent until proven guilty. The burden of proof lies with the prosecution and can’t be transferred to the accused. In criminal cases, the accused can plead guilty or not guilty. In the UK a defendant who pleads guilty is automatically convicted and the remainder of the trial is used to determine the sentence. In Russia, a confession by the defendant is treated like evidence, and a full confession does not prevent a full trial from occurring or relieve the prosecutor from having to present a case to the court.

In civil cases, courts can hand down a verdict in favour of the claimant or the defendant. These include, but are not limited to, recognition of a right, specific performance of an obligation, compensation for losses. There are two possible verdicts in criminal cases: guilty and not guilty.

  • Recognition of a right
  • Restoration of the status that existed before a right was violated and the suppression of actions that violated the right or created the threat of violation.
  • Recognition of a voidable transaction as invalid and the consequences of that invalidity
  • Recognition of an act by a state agency as invalid
  • Specific performance of the obligation
  • Compensation for losses
  • Payment of a penalty
  • Compensation for moral damage
  • Deprivation of the right to hold specific offices or to engage in specific activities
  • Deprivation of a special, military or honorary title
  • Compulsory community service
  • Correctional or compulsory labour
  • Limitation of military service (retention of a certain amount from one’s salary, prohibition of promotion)
  • Restriction of movement (prohibition of leaving the certain area or visiting certain public places)
  • Service in a disciplinary military unit
  • Prison sentence for a certain period or for life
  • Capital punishment currently not applied due to a moratorium

The main stages of a prisoner’s case are:

During the investigation, the suspects/accused may be subjected to restriction measures: an undertaking not to leave, a house arrest or incarceration. Prisoners on remand are placed in the special remand prisons (pre-trial detention centres) where they remain until the court has made a verdict. The length of incarceration on remand does not normally exceed eighteen months.

A criminal case may be closed before it comes to court, if both parties have arrived at an amicable solution, or the accused has repaired the damages to the affected party;

  • Once the investigation has been completed, the investigating authority will forward the case to the state prosecutor;
  • The prosecutor has ten days to review the case and find it suitable for consideration by court, or return it to the investigating authority for further action;
  • If the accused has been incarcerated, the court should schedule a preliminary hearing of the case (optional) or a trial within fourteen days. The court will make a verdict and determine a possible punishment. Russian law sets no time limit for completion of court proceedings and defines it as ‘reasonable’;
  • Upon delivery of a verdict, the accused has ten days to appeal the verdict at the appeal court, otherwise it comes in full force.

The rights of prisoners throughout the legal process are guaranteed by the Russian Civil Procedure Code and the Russian Criminal Procedure Code, and the Russian Ministry of Justice Order N189 of 14/10/2005 ‘On internal regulations of pre-trial detention centres’, among other.

The FCDO cannot interfere with the judicial system. We cannot ask for your case to be judged more quickly just because you are British, or ask the authorities to waive any penalties.

2 First steps

All details on detainee’s rights upon arrest and subsequent developments are available at Section: Police custody and initial arrival at prison.

If you have any questions on the legal aspects of your arrest, contact your lawyer. See for a list of local English-speaking lawyers

How long you can be remanded in custody

Normally, a suspect can be remanded in custody for the initial period of up to three months. Upon request of the investigator assigned to the criminal case, this period can be extended by court for another one to three months. There can be further extensions, but the total time on remand should not normally exceed eighteen months. If one is then sentenced to imprisonment, each day spent in a remand prison count toward their prison sentence as a day and a half. The same applies to the period of time spent by a convicted person during transportation from a remand prison to a penal colony.

There is an option to request a release on bail, but bail is rarely granted in Russia.

Prisoners on remand and sentenced prisoners: differences

After you are charged

All rights of the accused are set out by the Russian Criminal Procedure Code. These include, but are not limited to, receiving a copy of the above statement, refrain from making a statement in order not to incriminate themselves, providing evidence, filing motions and objections, making statements in their native language, accessing services of a pro bono interpreter, firing a lawyer or commission a state-appointed pro bono one, having an unlimited number of visits by their lawyer in confidence, familiarising themselves with the case materials of the preliminary investigation. These rights should be read to the accused by the investigator in charge of the case at the first interrogation.

If detainees believe the charges are false, they now need to work with their lawyer to gather proof of their innocence to be presented during court trial.

The accused detainee may or may not enter a plea of guilty/not guilty at this stage, but this will be treated as a piece of evidence and can’t be used as a reason for terminating the subsequent legal proceedings – investigation and court trial.

Bail (залог) can be made during the investigation into a criminal case or when the case comes to court. In Russia, it is the court that can approve or reject bail. Funds, stock/bonds, real estate, valuables and other assets or property can be used to make bail. The court sets the amount/type of bail in relation to the financial situation of the detainee, the nature of the crime, the likelihood of the accused leaving Russia, etc.

The minimum bail is 50,000 RUR for minor offences, and 500,000 RUR for severe offences. Bail can be made by the accused, or a third person, who is not a party to the criminal proceedings.

Bail funds need to be deposited to a court/investigating authority bank account. The authority then issues a formal statement confirming the receipt of bail.

Bail is normally paid within 72 hours after it has been granted by court.

The Court may lay down certain bail conditions, including a prohibition to drive a car/other vehicle, enter/leave certain areas or meet certain people, use Internet, post/receive mail, etc.

British Embassy Moscow can assist prisoners with contacting friends and family who may be willing to help with raising bail.

If a detainee fails to adhere to their bail conditions, the assets/funds provided as bail will be transferred as income to the state budget by a separate court decision. In case of a closure of the criminal case by court, the bail is returned to the bail-maker.

The possibility of bail depends on the nature and severity of the crime. Release on bail is not a common practice in Russia, especially in cases involving foreign nationals.

The FCDO cannot transfer bail funds.

4 Trial and legal assistance

In Russia, a suspect or accused has the right to the services of a state-provided pro bono lawyer, can hire their own lawyer or refuse legal representation. The right to pro bono legal representation is unconditional. If you wish to hire a private lawyer, a list of English-speaking lawyers is provided at the end of this pack. Prisoners Abroad can also supply information on legal aid, court proceedings and can advise on appointing a lawyer.

The costs of hiring a private lawyer as well as payment conditions may vary a great deal and need to be negotiated with the specific lawyer hired.

The interpretation services are normally provided pro bono by the state. You may hire your own interpreter using a list of interpreters provided at the end of this pack. The service fees may vary and need to be agreed with the specific service provider. British Embassy Moscow can assist with contacting friends or family in the UK to seek their financial support to cover the legal costs in Russia.

There is no legal aid in Russia. Accused or charged with certain types of a crime may consider contacting local human rights NGOs, which may be able to provide legal advice, support and representation. The human rights NGOs in Russia are detailed in Chapter 4 of this pack.

Court fees and trial costs may be borne by the state or charged to the defendant. This will be decided by court as part of their verdict. Costs of services of a state-provided interpreter and a defence lawyer are always covered by the state budget.

Court fees and trial costs may be charged to a defendant if the criminal case against him has been terminated. If a defendant has been cleared of any charges, no cost will have to be borne by them.

In Russia, when a criminal case comes to court, the judge may schedule a preliminary hearing or a trial. This is done within 14 days from the date of case receipt by court if a suspect/accused is on remand. A preliminary hearing may be held at a judge’s own discretion or as requested by a party to the proceedings. A preliminary hearing may be scheduled if admissibility of certain evidence has been challenged, if there has been a request for a jury trial, if the case needs to be returned to the prosecution, if there are reasons for the criminal case to be suspended or terminated, if there is a need to separate or merge criminal cases. Preliminary hearing is not open to general public.

A trial may be held over several sessions.

Once a trial has been scheduled, the judge subpoenas witnesses. A trial takes place no sooner than seven days from the date when the conclusion to indict was handed over to the accused and no later than fourteen days from the date of the judge’s decision to hold a trial (thirty days in case of a jury trial).

At a trial, the judge can question witnesses and the affected party through videoconferencing, while the defendant normally has to be present in the courtroom. A trial is normally open to general public except for cases involving state secrets, sensitive private matters or substantial concerns over a party’s security. Those present in a court room have a right to make written records or audio-recoding, while filming or taking photos can be done only with a prior permission of the judge.

The court verdict is always read at the final session open to the general public, except for state security-related cases when public can only hear the preliminary section and the sentencing section of the verdict.

None of the judges can be removed or replaced during a trial. If this happens, the trial has to be restarted. The members of the court normally include a judge, a judge’s assistant and a secretary, a state prosecution representative (has always to be present during a trial), a defence lawyer (who can be removed/replaced without restarting the trial) and experts. Court bailiffs are present and responsible for maintaining order in the courtroom. All proceedings in a court room are recorded in the session protocol, which is to be completed and signed off by a presiding judge within three days from the date of the session.

1) Opening Proceedings: the presiding judge announces the case to be tried; the assistant reports on attendance of those requested to appear; the presiding judge reads the interpreter their rights; the judge establishes the defendant’s identity and verifies if the conclusion to indict has been handed over to the defendant in due time; the judge introduces the participants and reads the right to recuse a judge; the judge reads the defendant, the affected and the experts their rights; the judge enquires about any motions by the parties; in absence of a participant, the judge consults with the parties and makes a conclusion to start/adjourn the trial.

2) Presenting and Examination of Evidence: the judge reads the charges and ask the defendant to plead guilty/not guilty and comment on the charges; the prosecution presents evidence; the defendant is interrogated; the affected party is questioned; the witnesses and experts are questioned; the judge may request an expert examination to be carried out; material evidence is examined; relevant documents are read; examination of location and facilities where the crime was committed takes place; crime re-enactment may take place; personal identification and medical examination may take place.

3) Presentation of Arguments and Final Statement: both parties present their arguments and the defendant makes their final statement; the court retires for deliberations.

4) Reading of Verdict: the judge reads the verdict. As the verdict is read in Russian, the court interpreter is responsible to provide simultaneous or consecutive translation of the reading. If the defendant is found not guilty or receives a penalty other than a prison or suspended sentence, they will be set free in the court room. In case the penalty is a prison sentence, the defendant is escorted from the courtroom to a prison. The defendant receives a copy of the verdict within no later than five days from the date it was read.

Sentences

A British National may or may not be deported from Russia upon their release from prison (if expulsion was not their court sentence). Based on a crime committed and prior incidents of legal offence in Russia, deportation may be imposed if the authorities conclude that the BN’s stay in Russia is not conducive to the public good. The cost of a forced expulsion/deportation should be covered by the BN themselves. It may be covered by the Russia state budget as a last resort, and this is a lengthy process. A purchase of a ticket by the BN or their family/friends can substantially expedite their departure from Russia.

British Embassy Moscow can help contacting family or friends in the UK for the purchase of a ticket to the UK and liaise with the authorities to forward the ticket to the prisoner.

A BN may be deported back to the country from where they came to Russia, or to the UK.

Appeals

The defendant as well as the state prosecution and the affected party may appeal the verdict made by court. They have ten days from the date the verdict was made (for prisoners on remand – from the date when the defendant received a copy of the verdict) to lodge the appeal.

Grounds for appeal may include severity or leniency in sentence, fact-finding errors, and approval or dismissal of a party’s motion, among other court decisions.

Appeal will be heard within 15 (if made to a district court), 30 (regional court) or 45 days (appeal court of general jurisdiction or Supreme Court) from the date it was lodged.

If no appeal has been lodged within 10 days, the verdict made by the court of first instance comes to full legal force.

After the verdict made by the court of first instance has come into force, the defendant and other parties to the proceedings may file a cassation appeal to the initial verdict made by court of first instance or to the subsequent decision of an appeal court in regards to the said verdict. Ground for cassation appeal is normally a breach of legal procedure during the initial trial/ appeal hearing, which resulted in the infringement of legal rights of a party to the proceedings.

Even if the appeal is made with a view to mitigate the original punishment, the actual appeal process may have the opposite result.

5 Reaching the end of your sentence

Article 78 of the Russian Criminal Enforcement Code provides for remission – improving imprisonment conditions for good behaviour and productive labour. A prisoner may be transferred to a type of prison with more favourable conditions (from a special colony to a high-security colony, or from a high-security one to a general one) having served half of their sentence; or from a general prison to a colony settlement having served one–quarter of their sentence. A prisoner or their lawyer has to file a request for such a transfer with a local court.

Article 80 of the Russian Criminal Code provides for reduction of sentence. A court may agree to substitute the remaining part of a prison sentence with forced labour if a prisoner has demonstrated good behaviour and compensated losses/damages resulted from their crime.

Early release

Article 79 of the Russian Criminal Code provides for early release of a prisoner on parole (условно-досрочное освобождение or УДО) for good behaviour and compensation of losses/damages resulted from their crime. The decision is made by court, which will set the conditions to be observed for the remainder of the initial sentence. A prisoner may request a release on parole having served at least one-third of their sentence (in case they were sentenced for a minor or medium level offence), at least half of the sentence (a grave crime), or two-third of the sentence (a particularly grave crime), among other. The prison sentence of at least six months would have to be served in any case.

Clemency or pardon

Article 85 of the Russian Criminal Code provides for clemency. Clemency may come in the form of a pardon (forgiveness of a sentence) or a commutation (reduction of a sentence, remission of a penalty). In Russia, clemency can only be granted by the President. There is also a custom of granting amnesty to prisoners sentenced for minor or medium offences, on the most significant dates in Russia’s history, but these are rare.

Financial penalties

Financial penalties may be the whole, or part of the sentence, alongside restriction of freedom. Article 76. 2 of the Russian Criminal Code provides for substitution of prison sentence with court fines in case of a minor or medium level offence, and if the offender has compensated the losses/repaired the damages done by their unlawful action to the affected party.

Transfer to another prison within Russia

Article 81 of the Russian Criminal Enforcement Code provides that normally all convicted persons serve their entire prison term in one penal institution.

Transfer to another prison within Russia is only possible:

  • as a sentence remission, in accordance with a prisoner’s/their lawyer’s request made to court
  • in case of a threat to prisoner’s safety and wellbeing, as provided by point 190 of the Ministry of Justice’s Order N295 of 16/12/16
  • in case of substantial deterioration of prisoner’s health requiring medical intervention
  • in case the prison is to be decommissioned or reorganised
  • in case of a natural or a man-made disaster
  • at a prisoner’s request for transfer to a penal institution in the region where their family reside (possible only once throughout the sentence term)

Transfer to a prison in the UK

The UK and Russia are both parties to the European Convention on the Transfer of Sentenced Persons 1983, which enables transfer of prisoners from Russia to the UK.

To transfer to the UK, you must:

  • be a British citizen or have close family ties with the UK (normally through permanent residence in the UK)
  • not be awaiting trial
  • have exhausted all appeals against your conviction and/or the length of your sentence; or have waived your right to an appeal
  • have at least 6 months of your sentence left to serve when you apply for transfer
  • have no outstanding fines or other non-custodial penalties

The offence you were convicted for must also be a criminal offence in the part of the UK you wish to be transferred to: England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland.

The authorities in the sentencing country may refuse your request. Even if the sentencing country agrees to your transfer, the UK authorities may also refuse your request. Reasons for this might include if you have not lived in the UK for a number of years and you have no close family living there.

The procedure for transferring a foreign prisoner from Russia is provided by Article 469 of the Russian Criminal Procedure Code. If a British prisoner would like to serve the rest of their sentence in the UK, they need to make a written request to the prison governor. The latter will make a submission via FSIN to the Russian Ministry of Justice, who will contact the UK authorities for their consent to transfer. If the UK authorities are satisfied with the terms and conditions of transfer stipulated by the Russian side, they may grant their permission to transfer. Once the permission is granted, the Russian Ministry of Justice will inform FSIN accordingly, who will then submit a request for transfer to a local court. The final decision about transfer can only be made by Russian court. The court will take into consideration if:

  • the offence committed is also a crime in the UK
  • there are provisions and conditions for serving the sentence in the UK comparable to those in Russia
  • the required warranties have been given by the UK authorities
  • the conditions of transfer are consistent with the international treaties, which Russia is a party to, and
  • the prisoner has their permanent residence in Russia

It may take about 1. 5-2 years to complete a transfer of prisoner from Russia to the UK. To find out more about transfers to the UK: In prison abroad: transfer to a UK prison

Release and deportation

A foreign national prisoner may or may not have to leave Russia after they have completed their sentence. Subsequent expulsion may be part of the sentence handed down by court. Subsequent deportation may be ordered by a state authority if the BN’s stay in Russia is deemed not conducive to the public good. A prisoner may be able to contest their expulsion/deportation in a local court.

The information on expulsion/deportation process and how we can assist is available at Section Trial and legal assistance/Sentences of this document.

Sometimes people find that they face difficulties adjusting to life in the UK once they have left prison. You may find yourself ready for life on the outside but not prepared for living in the UK. You may not have lived in the UK before and have no connections there, or perhaps you have lost touch with friends and family. You may want to talk to another person who understands what you have been through, to help you consider what to do next.

If you are registered with Prisoners Abroad, you can visit Prisoners Abroad when you first arrive back in UK for advice, to take a shower, use their temporary luggage store, make essential phone calls or use a computer. If you have no belongings Prisoners Abroad may be able to help with basic toiletries and finding suitable clothing. If you know your release date in advance you should tell your consular caseworker when you are likely to arrive and what help you think you might need. If you have no money and nowhere to go, Prisoners Abroad’s Aftercare Service can help with:

  • advice on finding emergency accommodation in the London area
  • claiming welfare benefits, including emergency benefit payments if you are destitute
  • making appointments with doctors and dentists
  • putting you in touch with local agencies if you are not returning to the London area

Later on you may want advice on housing, looking for work, applying for training or getting counselling. Prisoners Abroad can refer you to the right agency.

Other sources of practical help back in the UK are:

The Salvation Army
UK Helpline +44 (0)20 7367 4888

Monday to Friday 8am to 4pm, or contact your local Salvation Army branch

The Prison Fellowship

UK Helpline +44 (0)20 7799 2500

Monday to Friday 9am to 5pm

Your criminal record in the UK

We will not normally pass on information about your case to a third party without your consent. However, if you’re arrested for certain serious offences, such as child sex abuse or drugs crimes, our staff must tell other relevant UK authorities. It is possible that information about this may appear if a Criminal Records Bureau check were carried out by a prospective employer.

Useful resources

  • Russian Ministry of Education – the Ministry of Education website which provides up-to-date news and information
  • Vash Repetitor – a company that offers the services of private tutors around Russia
  • British Council in Russia – an organization that helps U.K. nationals in Russia connect with their country of origin and adapt to life in Russia

Primary education in Russia

Primary school (начальная школа, nachalnaya shkola) is overseen by the Russian Ministry of Education and is compulsory for all children in the country. Children in Russia begin primary school at the age of six or seven and continue it for four years. During this time, they learn to read and write and master basic mathematics.

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

Most primary schools also begin to teach children a foreign language, which is usually either English or German. Students also study music, physical education, and a subject called “the world around us” (окружающий мир, okruzhayushchy mir). This contains basic elements of geography, history, and social studies.

Public primary schools in Russia

Public primary schools are free to attend in Russia, but parents still need to pay for books, sportswear, school uniform, and other things their children need. Notably, the quality of education varies depending on where you live. In the major cities, such as Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Yekaterinburg, for instance, the standard of education is typically higher than in rural areas. There is also a wider variety of primary schools to choose from, compared to small towns and villages which often only have one.

Private primary schools in Russia

If you are willing to pay to ensure that your child receives a higher standard of education, then you might want to consider enrolling them at a private school. Russia is home to numerous privately-owned, fee-paying schools, particularly in the larger cities.

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

Although fees vary based on the school and the location, they are generally quite high. For example, primary school classes at Moscow’s Zhukovka Gymnasium cost ₽63,000 per month, while the Aristos Lyceum in St. Petersburg charges ₽20,000 per month.

Expats often want to ensure that their children’s education matches that of their home country to the greatest possible extent. If this sounds appealing to you, then you may want to look at sending your child to an international school. Moscow, in particular, offers a wide range of international schools that teach curricula from various countries such as the U. , the U. , France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden. The vast majority of international schools in Russia cover both primary and secondary education.

Graduating in Russia

In order to graduate from school, Russian students must sit the Unified State Examination (EGE). This includes mandatory exams in the Russian language and mathematics, along with a range of additional subjects that students may choose from.

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

These include foreign languages (English, German, French, Spanish, and Chinese), physics, chemistry, biology, geography, literature, history, social sciences, and computer science. Students who receive high enough grades in their exams will be able to go on to study at university.

Рубрики/разделы журнала «Вестник Волжского университета имени В. Татищева» по отраслям науки/научным направлениям, группам и соответствующим им научным специальностям

Периодичность издания журнала — 4 раза в год (номер в квартал).

Вход на официальный сайт Почты России

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

Официальный сайт Почта России, находиться по адресу:  www. pochta

Попав на официальный сайт Почты России, гражданин видит на главной странице меню, в котором перечислены все доступные пользователю услуги:

  • отправка и отслеживание писем и посылок;
  • заказ курьерской доставки;
  • денежные переводы и прочие финансовые операции;
  • поиск отделений;
  • кредитование и прочие пользующиеся спросом услуги.

Отследить посылку

Удобная и полезная услуга, представленная на сайте российской Почты. Чтобы узнать, где застряла посылка или письмо, достаточно вписать трек-номер в строку «Отследить» на главной странице. Причем сделать это можно и через компьютер, и через мобильное приложение.

Многие отправители не знают, что такое трек-номер, где его искать. Он указан на чек-листе, получаемом при любой заказной отправке, выглядит как комбинация из 14 цифр.

Если узнать, где находится посылка, хочет не отправитель, а получатель, то он может либо спросить трек-номер у отправившего человека, либо, если в посылке покупка, посмотреть на странице заказа в интернет-магазине.

Международный трек-номер состоит из 13 знаков, включает как цифры, так и латинские буквы. Проконтролировать можно только зарегистрированную международную посылку, номер которой начинается с буквы R, L, C, E либо V. Обычную посылку на сайте Почты России увидеть невозможно, она не введена в информационную почтовую систему. Если на российском сайте введение международного трек-номера не дает результата, то можно попробовать аналогичную процедуру на почтовом сервисе страны-отправителя.

Письма

На сайте российской Почты можно рассчитать стоимость отправки, длительность доставки, узнать, как правильно послать письмо, что для этого нужно. Учреждение предлагает три варианта доставки:

  • обычную – стоимость от 23 рублей;
  • ускоренную – от 80 рублей;
  • курьерскую – от 270 рублей.

Также можно воспользоваться дополнительными услугами:

  • Заказное письмо, вручаемое получателю в руки.
  • Уведомление о том, что корреспонденция успешно дошла до адресата, с подписью получившего человека.
  • Застрахованное письмо, позволяющее получить компенсацию, если с ним что-то случится в пути.
  • Опись – письменное, подписанное сотрудником почты подтверждение содержания и даты отправленной корреспонденции.
  • Наложенный платеж.

Отправить посылку

Почта предлагает три варианта доставки:

  • обычную – стоимость от 176 рублей;
  • ускоренную – от 173 рублей;
  • экспресс – от 270 рублей.
  • Застрахованная посылка, позволяющая получить компенсацию при ее потере или порче.
  • Опись – подписанное сотрудником почты подтверждение содержания и даты отправленной посылки.
  • Наклейка «Осторожно» на посылку, включающую хрупкие, бьющиеся, дорогие предметы.
  • Наложенный платеж.

Чтобы отправка посылки заняла меньше времени, можно перед походом в отделение почты провести подготовительные процедуры в онлайн-режиме:

  • Для упакованной, взвешенной, запечатанной по правилам посылки (правила упаковки и запечатывания можно прочитать на сайте Почты) нужно оформить электронный бланк.
  • Бланк находится в разделе «Посылки». В нем необходимо указать адрес отправителя и получателя, вес отправляемого предмета, при необходимости дополнительные параметры.
  • Бланк нужно распечатать, наклеить на верхнюю сторону коробки посередине.
  • Посылку следует принести в почтовое отделение, передать сотруднику, оплатить отправку. Оплату можно произвести в онлайн-режиме, и тогда на почте не придется стоять в очереди.

Вызвать курьера

Сайт Почты позволяет воспользоваться услугами курьера. Чтобы отправить курьерскую посылку, необходимо на сайте заполнить анкету. Находится она в разделе «Вызов курьера». В ней нужно:

  • указать, на какой адрес должен прибыть курьер;
  • какого числа и в какое время;
  • вписать ФИО;
  • указать телефон, по которому сотрудник почты уточнит детали;
  • при необходимости написать сообщение с дополнительными сведениями;
  • кликнуть по синей кнопке «Вызвать курьера».

Финансовые услуги

Осуществлять платежи, оправлять и принимать денежные переводы можно как в почтовом отделении, так и в онлайн-режиме. На сайте доступны следующие услуги:

  • коммунальные платежи;
  • оплата мобильной связи от разных российских операторов;
  • погашение штрафов;
  • вывод наличных денег с банковской карты;
  • перевод денег с одного банковского пластика на другой;
  • оплата всех видов интернет-связи.

Некоторые услуги реализуются только в почтовом отделении:

  • срочные денежные переводы без указания адреса;
  • адресные переводы с возможностью привлечения курьера;
  • международные переводы Western Union.

Отделения

На сайте можно найти отделение почты, оказывающее определенный спектр услуг. В разделе «Поиск отделений» в поисковой строке нужно ввести индекс населенного пункта либо адрес. Также можно указать дополнительные параметры отделения:

  • круглосуточное обслуживание;
  • работа в выходные дни;
  • экспресс-отправления;
  • выдача и прием посылок;
  • возможность отправки телеграмм;
  • строчные денежные переводы;
  • международные переводы Western Union;
  • возможность посещения инвалидами, надомное обслуживание колясочников.

Другие сервисы

Из прочих услуг, предлагаемых на сайте Почты, следует назвать:

  • подписку на печатные издания для детей и взрослых (с указанием цен);
  • отправку поздравительных и благодарственных открыток;
  • поиск индекса;
  • список доступных для распечатки бланков отправления;
  • подключение услуги заказной электронной корреспонденции;
  • отправку обычных и поздравительных телеграмм;
  • покупку бытовых товаров в интернет-магазине;
  • оформление кредита на сервисе «Почта Банк»;
  • отправку электронного сообщения с вопросами, претензиями, предложениями.

Перечень услуг, оказываемых российской Почтой, широкий. Каждый гражданин может на сайте выбрать необходимые услуги, произвести полезные и экономящие время операции. Почту нередко критикуют за невыполнение сроков доставки корреспонденции и посылок, но можно воспользоваться услугой отслеживания, заказать экспресс-доставку, застраховать отправляемую вещь.

Secondary education in Russia

Secondary education in Russia is split into two parts. Basic general education (основное общее образование, osnovnoye obshcheye obrazovaniye) lasts for four years and ends with the Basic State Examination (Основной государственный экзамен, Osnovnoy gosudarstvenny ekzamen – ОГЭ/OGE). This determines what students can study during the final two years of their education.

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

After taking this exam, students who received high enough marks can continue on to secondary general education (Среднее общее образование, sredneye obshcheye obrazovaniye), which lasts for two years and culminates with the Unified State Examination (EGE). Other pupils may decide to spend those two years in vocational education.

Public secondary schools in Russia

Like public primary schools, public secondary schools in Russia are free to attend and are overseen by the Ministry of Education. Again, like primary schools, the quality of education can vary greatly depending on the school and its location.

All children must attend school until the age of 15, at which time they may leave with their parents’ consent. For the first four years of secondary school, they will study Russian language, literature, a foreign language, mathematics, IT, history, social studies, geography, physics, biology, chemistry, music, art, design & technology, and physical education.

This period ends with students taking the Basic State Examination (OGE). After doing so, they can choose to either continue studying for another two years and take the Unified State Examination (EGE), switch to a vocational school, or leave education altogether.

Vocational schools in Russia

There are two types of vocational schools in Russia: college (колледж, kolledzh) and technical school (техникум, tekhnikum). These can prepare students for a wide range of careers, from aviation and veterinary medicine to secretarial work and engineering. However, while both provide a vocational education, colleges offer a more in-depth education and more advanced qualifications than technical schools.

A critical introduction to the National Atlas of Russia (publ. 2004–2008)

During their first year at a vocational school, students will study subjects that are relevant to their chosen profession, as well as subjects they previously studied at school; such as Russian language, mathematics, and history. During the second and final year, students will study a wider range of subjects that are linked to their profession.

Private secondary schools in Russia

Russia is home to a number of private secondary schools, which are mostly based in Moscow and St. Petersburg. That said, smaller cities such as Kazan and Penza also offer similar schools.

These schools usually offer a higher standard of education than public secondary schools, but charge higher fees than private primary schools. The fees for private secondary schools can also vary significantly depending on location. For example, the First Moscow Gymnasium charges ₽150,000 per month for education, while the Tete-a-Tete private school in St. Petersburg charges ₽240,000 per year.

If you prefer your child to receive their education in their native language, there are also a number of international schools in Russia that teach in English and other languages. Just bear in mind that the majority of these are based in Moscow. You can search for international schools in Russia in our directory.

Понравилась статья? Поделиться с друзьями:
sdo.russianpost.ru
Добавить комментарий

Adblock
detector